Kamis, 21 Juni 2018  

Tax Treaty : Indonesia - Kuwait ( Kuwait )

  
Tax Treaty : Indonesia - Kuwait ( Kuwait )
Signed Date : 23 April 1997
Effective Date : 01 Januari 1999
Languange Version : En - Id

2105_kuwait eng

AGREEMENT BETWEEN
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
AND
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT

FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND
THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL

Article 1
PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2
TAXES COVERED

  1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State, or of its political subdivisions or local authorities thereof, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied. 

  2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, as well as taxes on capital appreciation. 

  3. The existing taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are in particular: 

    (a)

    in the case of Indonesia:
    the income tax imposed under the Undang-undang Pajak Penghasilan 1984 (Law No. 7 of 1983 as amended.)
    (hereinafter referred to as "Indonesian tax");

    (b)

    in the case of Kuwait:
    (1) the corporate income tax;
    (2) the 5% of the net profits of shareholding companies payable to the Kuwait Foundation for Advancement of Science (KFAS); and
    (3) the Zakat
    (hereinafter referred to as "Kuwait tax").

  4. This Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of this Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3
GENERAL DEFINITIONS

  1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires :

    (a)

    the term "Indonesia" comprises the territory of the Republic of Indonesia as defined in its laws and the adjacent areas over which Indonesia has sovereign rights or jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982;

    (b)

    the term "Kuwait" means the State of Kuwait and includes any area beyond the territorial sea which in accordance with international law has been or may be designated under the laws of Kuwait as an area in which Kuwait may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction;

    (c)

    the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean Indonesia or Kuwait as the context requires; 

    (d)

    the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;

    (e)

    the term "national" means any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State as well as any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State; 

    (f)

    the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes; 

    (g)

    the term "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State; 

    (h)

    the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; 

    (i)

    the term "tax" means Indonesian tax or Kuwaiti tax, as the context requires;

    (j)

    the term competent authority means:
    (1) in Indonesia: the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;
    (2) in Kuwait: the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;

  2. As regards the application of this Agreement by a Contracting State any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of that Contracting State concerning the taxes to which this Agreement applies. 

Article 4
RESIDENT

  1. For purpose of this Agreement, the term resident of a Contracting State means:

    (a)

    in the case of Indonesia, any person who, under the tax laws of Indonesia is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of similar nature;

    (b)

    in the case of Kuwait, an individual who has his domicile in Kuwait and is a Kuwaiti national, and a company which is incorporated in the State of Kuwait. 

  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1, a resident of a Contracting State shall include:

    (a)

    the Government of that Contracting State or any political subdivision or local authority thereof; and 

    (b)

    any government institution created in that Contracting State under public law such as a corporation, Central Bank, fund, authority, foundation, agency or other similar entity; and a

    (c)

    in the case of Kuwait, any inter-government entity established in Kuwait in whose capital Kuwait subscribes together with other States. 

  3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident, of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

    (a)

    he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; 

    (b)

    if he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests); 

    (c)

    if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode; 

    (d)

    if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national; 

    (e)

    if his status cannot be determined under the provisions of subparagraphs (a) to (d), the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

  4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated, or if that cannot be established, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement. 

Article 5
PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

  1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on. 

  2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially: 

    (a) a place of management;
    (b) a branch;
    (c) an office;
    (d) a factory;
    (e) a workshop;
    (f) a warehouse or premises used as safes outlet;
    (g) a farm or plantation;
    (h)

    a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources, drilling rig or working ship used for exploration or exploitation of natural resources.

  3. A building site or a construction, assembly or installation project or a supervisory activity in connection therewith constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activity continues for a period of more than three months. 

  4. The furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise of a Contracting State through employees or other engaged personnel in the other Contracting State constitutes a permanent establishment provided that such activities continue for the same project or a connected project for a period or periods aggregating more than three months within any twelve-month period. 

  5. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if substantial equipment in that other Contracting State is being used or installed by, for or under contract with the enterprise. 

  6. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:

    (a)

    the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise; 

    (b)

    the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display; 

    (c)

    the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

    (d)

    the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or for the purpose of advertising or the collection or supply of information, for the enterprise; 

    (e)

    the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

    (f)

    the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character. 

  7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, where a person -- other than an agent of an independent status to which paragraph 8 applies -- is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State, in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if:

    (a)

    he has and habitually exercises in the first-mentioned Contracting State a general authority to negotiate and conclude contracts in the name of such enterprise; or

    (b)

    he has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned Contracting State a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to such enterprise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of such enterprise; or 

    (c)

    he habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned Contracting State, exclusively or almost exclusively for the enterprise itself or for such enterprise and other enterprises which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it; or 

    (d)

    in so acting, he manufactures in that Contracting State for the enterprise goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise.

  8. An insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except with regard to reinsurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums in that other Contracting State or insures risks situated therein through an employee or through a representative who is not an agent of an independent status within the meaning of paragraph 9. 

  9. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other Contracting State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph. 

  10. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other. 

Article 6
INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture of forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State, but the tax so charged shall be reduced by an amount equal to (50%) fifty per cent of such tax. 

  2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property. 

  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property. 

  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services. 

Article 7
BUSINESS PROFITS

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of an enterprise may be taxed in the other Contracting State but only so much of them as is attributable to: 

    (a) that permanent establishment;
    (b) sales in that other Contracting State of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold through that permanent establishment; or
    (c) other business activities carried on in that other Contracting State of the same or similar kind as those effected through that permanent establishment.
  2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment. 

  3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. However, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission, for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment. Likewise, no account shall be taken, in the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, for amounts charged (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses), by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or their similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the head office or any of its other offices. 

  4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

  5. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article. I

  6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article. 

  7. If the information available to the competent authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment of an enterprise, nothing in paragraph 2 shall affect the application of any law of that Contracting State relating to the determination of the tax liability of that permanent establishment by making of an estimate of the profits to be taxed of that permanent establishment by the competent authority of the Contracting State, provided that the law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the competent authority permits, in accordance with the principles of this Article. 

  8. For the purpose of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary. 

Article 8
INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

  1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 

  2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits derived from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency. 

Article 9
ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

  1. Where:

    (a)

    an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

    (b)

    the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

    and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

  2. Where one of the Contracting States includes in the profits of an enterprise of that Contracting State -- and taxes accordingly -- profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other Contracting State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned Contracting State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other Contracting State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall, if necessary, consult each other. However, in such circumstances, a Contracting State shall not adjust the profits of an enterprise after the expiry of the time limits provided under its statute of limitations. 

Article 10
DIVIDENDS

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 

  2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% (ten per cent) of the gross amount of the dividends. 
    This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State shall not be taxable in that Contracting State if the beneficial owner of the dividends is the Government of the other Contracting State or any governmental institution or other entity thereof, as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 4. 

  4. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights assimilated to income from shares by the taxation law of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident. 

  5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 

  6. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other Contracting State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other Contracting State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other Contracting State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other Contracting State. 

  7. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Agreement where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State, the profits of the permanent establishment may be subjected to an additional tax in that other State in accordance with its law, but the additional tax so charged shall not exceed 10% (ten per cent) of the amount of such profits after deducting therefrom income tax and other taxes on income imposed thereon in that other State. However, this additional tax will be applicable only if such profits are transferred to the parent company of the permanent establishment within the 12 (twelve) months period after the profits are accrued. 

  8. The rate of tax in paragraphs 2 and 7 shall not affect the rate of tax applied in any production sharing contracts or any other similar contracts relating to oil and gas sector or other mining sector concluded by the Government of Indonesia, its instrumentality, its relevant state oil and gas company or any other entity thereof with a person who is a resident of the other Contracting State. 

Article 11
INTEREST

  1. Interest derived from sources within one of the Contracting States by a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed by both Contracting States. 
    However, the rate of tax imposed by one of Contracting States on interest derived from sources within that Contracting State and beneficially owned by resident of the other Contracting State shall not exceed 5% (five per cent) of the gross amount of such interest. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions, interest arising in a Contracting State shall not be taxable in that Contracting State if the beneficial owner of the interest is: 
    (a) the Government of the other Contracting State or any governmental institution or other entity thereof, as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 4; or
    (b) a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State and is controlled or at least 25% (twenty-five per cent) of its capital is owned directly or indirectly by the government or governmental institution of that other Contracting State or other entity thereof, as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 4.
  2. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premium and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income assimilated to income from money lent under the taxation law of the Contracting State in which the income arises, including interest on deferred payment sales. 

  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. ich the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment of fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

  4. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated. 

  5. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement. 

Article 12
ROYALTIES

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 

  2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the resident is the beneficial owner of the royalties the tax so charged shall not exceed 20% (twenty per cent) of the gross amount of such royalties. 

  3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind receives as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films, or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience. 

  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 

  5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated. 

  6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payment shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
CAPITAL GAINS

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax so charged shall be reduced by an amount equal to 50% (fifty per cent) of such tax. 

  2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax so charged shall be reduced by an amount equal to 50% (fifty per cent) of such tax. 

  3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 

  4. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident. 

Article 14
INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may be taxed in the other Contracting State in the following circumstances:

    (a)

    if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities (in which case only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State); or 

    (b)

    if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve month period. 

  2. The term "professional services" includes especially but not exclusively independent scientific, literary, artistic, education or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants. 

Article 15
DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 

  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State if:

    (a)

    the resident is present in the other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the calendar year concerned; and 

    (b)

    the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other Contracting State; and 

    (c)

    the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other Contracting State. 

  3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 

  4. Ground staff appointed from head office of national air carrier of a Contracting State to the other Contracting State and who are nationals of that Contracting State shall be exempted from taxes levied on their remunerations in the other Contracting States. 

Article 16
DIRECTORS' FEES

  1. Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State. 

  2. The remuneration which a person to whom paragraph 1 applies derives from the company in respect of the discharge of day-to-day functions of a managerial or technical nature may be taxed in accordance with the provisions of Article 15. 

Article 17
ARTISTES AND ATHLETES

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as an athlete, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 

  2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or an athlete in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or athlete are exercised.

  3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to remuneration or profits, salaries, wages and similar income derived by entertainers or athletes who are residents of a Contracting State from activities in the other Contracting State if their visit to that Contracting State is substantially supported from the public funds of the other Contracting State, including those of any political subdivision, a local authority or statutory body thereof, nor to income derived by a non-profit making organization in respect of such activities provided no part of its income is payable to, or is otherwise available for the personal benefit of its proprietors, founders or members. 

Article 18
PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 of Article 19, any pension or other similar remuneration paid to a resident of one of the Contracting States from a source in the other Contracting State in consideration of past employment or services in that other Contracting State and any annuity paid to such a resident from such a source may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 

  2. As used in this Article:

    (a)

    the terms "pensions and other similar remuneration" mean periodic payments made after retirement in consideration of past employment or by way of compensations for injuries received in connection with past employment. 

    (b)

    the term "annuities" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life, or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth. 

Article 19
GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1. (a)

Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(b)

However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that Contracting State and the individual is a resident of that Contracting State who: 

(1)

is a national of that Contracting State; or

(2)

did not become a resident of that Contracting State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. (a)

Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(b)

However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that Contracting State.

3.

The provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20
TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS

An individual who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who, at the invitation of the Government of the first-mentioned Contracting State or of a university, college, school, museum or other cultural institution in that first-mentioned State or under an official programme of cultural exchange, is present in that Contracting State for a period not exceeding two consecutive years solely for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures or carrying out research at such institution shall be exempt from tax in that Contracting State on his remuneration for such activity, provided that the payment of such remuneration is derived by him from outside that Contracting State.

Article 21
STUDENTS AND TRAINEES

  1. Payments which a student or business trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that Contracting State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that Contracting State.

  2. In respect of grants, scholarships and remuneration from employment not covered by paragraph 1, a student or business trainee described in paragraph 1 shall, in addition, be entitled during such education or training to the same exemptions, reliefs or reductions in respect of taxes available to residents of the Contracting State which he is visiting. 

Article 22
OTHER INCOME

Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

Article 23
CAPITAL

If in the future a Contracting State will introduce a general tax on capital, the competent authorities shall by mutual agreement decide how this Agreement shall apply to such a tax.

Article 24
ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

  1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States shall continue to govern the taxation in the respective Contracting State except where provisions to the contrary are made in this Agreement. 

  2. It is agreed that double taxation shall be avoided in accordance with the following paragraphs of this Article:

    (a)

    in the case of Indonesia;

    (1)

    where a resident of Indonesia derives income from Kuwait and such income may be taxed in Kuwait in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, the amount of Kuwaiti tax payable in respect of such income shall be allowed as a credit against the Indonesian tax imposed on that resident. The amount of credit, however, shall not exceed that part of the Indonesian tax which is appropriate to such income; 

    (2)

    for the purpose of item (1) of this subparagraph the Kuwaiti Zakat tax mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article 2 shall be considered an income tax; 

    (b)

    in the case of Kuwait:
    If a resident of Kuwait owns items of income and capital which are taxable in Indonesia, Kuwait may tax these items of income and capital and may give relief for the Indonesian taxes imposed in accordance with the provisions of its domestic law. In such a case, Kuwait shall deduct from the taxes so calculated the tax paid in Indonesia but in an amount not exceeding that proportion of the aforesaid Kuwaiti tax which such items of income bear to the entire income.

  3. Where in accordance with the laws of a Contracting State, taxes covered by this Agreement are exempted or reduced in accordance with the special investment incentive measures for a limited period of time, such taxes which have been payable in accordance with this Agreement but have been exempted or reduced shall be deemed to have been paid for the purposes of the preceding paragraphs of this Article. 

Article 25
NON-DISCRIMINATION

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation or connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States. 

  2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State, carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents. 

  3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, nothing in this Article shall affect the right of either Contracting State to grant an exemption or reduction of taxation in accordance with its domestic laws, regulations or administrative practices to its own nationals who are residents of that Contracting State. Such exemption or reduction, however, shall not apply in respect of such proportion of the capital of companies owned by persons who are nationals of the other Contracting State. 

  4. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as imposing a legal obligation on a Contracting State to extend to the residents of the other Contracting State, the benefit of any treatment, preference or privilege which may be accorded to any other State or its residents by virtue of the formation of a customs union, economic union, special agreements, a free trade area or by virtue of any regional or sub-regional arrangement relating wholly or mainly to movement of capital and/or taxation to which the first-mentioned Contracting State may be a party. 

  5. In this Article, the term "taxation" means taxes which are the subject of this Agreement. 

Article 26
MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

  1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those Contracting States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 25, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

  2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with this Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented within five years from the date of such an agreement. 

  3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of this Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in this Agreement. 

  4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. 

Article 27
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that Contracting State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. 

  2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation.

    (a)

    to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practices of that or of the other Contracting State; 

    (b)

    to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; 

    (c)

    to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public). 

Article 28
MISCELLANEOUS RULES

  1. The provisions of this Agreement shall not be construed or restrict in any matter any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit or other allowance now or hereafter accorded: 

    (a)

    by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that Contracting State; or 

    (b)

    by any other special arrangement on taxation in connection with the economic or technical cooperation between the Contracting States. 

  2. Competent authorities of each Contracting State may prescribe regulations in order to carry out the provisions of this Agreement.

Article 29
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR PRIVILEGES

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of a diplomatic mission, a consular post or an international organization under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 30
ENTRY INTO FORCE

  1. The Contracting States shall notify each other that the constitutional requirements for entry into force of this Agreement have been complied with. 

  2. This Agreement shall enter into force thirty days after the later of the dates of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 and its provisions shall have effect in both Contracting States: 

    (a)

    in respect of taxes withheld at source, to amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of January of the year next following that in which this Agreement enters into force; 

    (b)

    in respect of other taxes for taxable periods beginning on or after the first day of January of the year next following that in which this Agreement enters into force. 

Article 31
TERMINATION

This Agreement shall remain in force for a period of five years and shall continue in force thereafter for similar period or periods unless either Contracting State notifies the other in writing, six months before the expiry of the initial or any subsequent period, of its intention to terminate this Agreement. In such event, this Agreement shall cease to have effect in both Contracting States:
(a)

in respect of taxes withheld at source on amounts payable on or after the first day of January in the year following that in which the notice of termination is given; and 

(b)

in respect of other taxes for the taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January in the year following that in which the notice of termination is given. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.
 
Done at Kuwait this 23rd day of April 1997, corresponding to the 16th day of Thulhijja 1417 H in duplicate, in the Indonesian, Arabic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergency, the English text shall prevail.

For the Government of
the Republic of Indonesia
sgd
Ali Alatas
Minister for Foreign Affairs
The Republic of Indonesia

For the Government of
State of Kuwait
sgd
Nasser A. Al-Roudan
Deputy Prime Minister,
And Minister of Finance